What is Diabetes? Cause of Diabetes


What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease which affects your body’s ability to use insulin. Insulin is a hormone. When your body turns the food you eat into energy (also called sugar or glucose), insulin is released to help transport this energy to the cells.

Insulin acts as a “key.” Its chemical message tells the cell to open and receive glucose. Insulin is synthesized and secreted by Beta Cells of Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.It was discovered in 1927 by Banting and Best.It is a water soluble polypeptide and it’s molecular weight is about 6000.The main function of insulin is to regulate Carbohydrates metabolism.

In its deficiency, glucose level rises in the blood and it is excreted in urine.The condition called diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Mellitus
Photo credit: Health

There are main two types of Diabetes:

  1. Type 1(Diabetes Mellitus)
  2. Type 2(Diabetes Inchipitus)

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus(DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, polyuria,glycosuria,polydepsia,polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue and blurred vision altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein. And increased risk of complications from vascular disease.

Diabetes Mellitus is insulin dependent diabetes also called juvenile onset diabetes.This is mostly due to autoimmune disorder or viral infection of the Beta cells of Islets of Langerhans, resulting in low level of insulin.

Type 2(non insulin dependent)diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, or when the cells are unable to use insulin properly, which is called insulin resistance. Non insulin dependent diabetes is commonly called “adult-onset diabetes” since it is diagnosed later in life, generally after the age of 45. It accounts for 90-95 percent of people with diabetes. In recent years, Type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed in younger people, including children, more frequently than in the past.

What causes diabetes?

Genetics, lifestyle and environment can be causes of diabetes. Eating an unhealthy diet, being overweight or obese and not exercising enough may play a role in developing diabetes, particularly Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus diabetes is caused by an autoimmune response. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas.

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